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Exercise 28: Intermediate Makefiles
In the next three exercises you'll create a skeleton project directory to use in building your C programs later. This skeleton directory will be used in the rest of the book. In this exercise, I'll cover just the
Makefile so you can understand it.
The purpose of this structure is to make it easy to build medium-sized programs without having to resort to configure tools. If done right, you can get very far with just GNU make and some small shell scripts.
The Basic Project Structure
The first thing to do is make a
c-skeleton directory, and then put a set of basic files and directories in it that many projects have. Here's my starter:
$ mkdir c-skeleton
$ cd c-skeleton/
$ touch LICENSE README.md Makefile
$ mkdir bin src tests
$ cp dbg.h src/ # this is from Ex20
$ ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 zedshaw staff 0 Mar 31 16:38 LICENSE
-rw-r--r-- 1 zedshaw staff 1168 Apr 1 17:00 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 zedshaw staff 0 Mar 31 16:38 README.md
drwxr-xr-x 2 zedshaw staff 68 Mar 31 16:38 bin
drwxr-xr-x 2 zedshaw staff 68 Apr 1 10:07 build
drwxr-xr-x 3 zedshaw staff 102 Apr 3 16:28 src
drwxr-xr-x 2 zedshaw staff 68 Mar 31 16:38 tests
$ ls -l src
-rw-r--r-- 1 zedshaw staff 982 Apr 3 16:28 dbg.h
At the end you see me do an
ls -l so that you can see the final results.
LICENSE: If you release the source of your projects, you'll want to include a license. If you don't though, the code is copyright by you and nobody has rights to it by default.
README.md: Basic instructions for using your project go here. It ends in
.mdso that it will be interpreted as markdown.
Makefile: The main build file for the project.
bin/: Where programs that users can run go. This is usually empty, and the Makefile will create it if it's not there.
build/: Where libraries and other build artifacts go. Also empty and the Makefile will create it if it's not there.
src/: Where the source code goes, usually
tests/: Where automated tests go.
src/dbg.h: I copied the
dbg.hfrom Exercise 20 into
I'll now break down each of the components of this skeleton project so that you can understand how it works.
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